I) Passages that state Jesus died to save Group A, which is contrasted as not being the exact same as Group B (who are clearly those who believe in Jesus, or in Calvinism called ‘the Elect’):

For God so loved the world [Group A], that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. … I am praying for them. I am not praying for the world [Group A] but for those whom you have given me [Group B], for they are yours. – John 3:16, 17:9



(Above: Calvinist John 3:16 with mandatory disclaimers)

For to this end we toil and strive, because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all people [Group A], especially of those who believe [Group B]. – 1 Timothy 4:10

He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only [Group B] but also for the sins of the whole world [Group A]. – 1 John 2:2


II) Passages which use ‘all’ more than once, in a way that if the meaning is explained away to not encompass ‘all-100% of individuals’ for one case, then it will undermine an accepted doctrine affecting ‘all-100% of individuals’ in the other case:

Therefore, as one trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all men. For as by the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man’s obedience the many will be made righteous. – Romans 5:18-19
[It is accepted that Adam’s sin led to condemnation for all-100% of individuals in the first usage; can Paul then be inconsistent that ‘all’ doesn’t mean all-100% of individuals in the second usage?]

For God has consigned all to disobedience, that he may have mercy on all. – Romans 11:32
[Same as previous; if ‘all’ doesn’t mean all-100% of individuals are offered mercy in the second usage, then it would be inconsistent to say that ‘all’ DOES mean all-100% of individuals were disobedient in the first usage.



III) A passage that seems to indicate that Jesus paid a price that includes even those who eventually reject Him:

But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction. – 2 Peter 2:1


IV) A passage which when taking at plain reading, seems to indicate that ‘the elect’ does not refer to ‘those who are already assured salvation from eternity past’ – note the ‘they also’ and ‘may’:

Therefore I endure everything for the sake of the elect, that they also may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory. – 2 Timothy 2:10

More on the last one at which also notes that John Piper misquotes the passage three times in a row; to be generous, perhaps he misremembers the passage – maybe from being so steeped in his systematic that it tricks his memory.


Maybe this is why so many Reformed rejected Limited Atonement, including Calvin, Luther and Zwingli.

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